The CBO issued in July an outlook for the U.S. population through 2052. Here are some highlights:
Very little annual increase: The population increases from 335 million in 2022 to 369 million in 2052, an average 0.3% increase.
Fewer workers relative to old people: The number of people ages 25 to 54 to the number of people over 65 falls from 2.3 to 1 in 2022 to 1.7 to 1 and 2052.
Below replacement fertility rate: before the 2008 recession, the rate as 2.02, below 2.1 replacement rate. In the future it will be 1.75.
Virtually flat workforce: the 25 – 54 population will grow from about 130 million to 135 million.
Immigration adds one million people per year. From other sources, the average age of recent immigrants in 30 vs the average age of Americans at 38. This implies that immigrants may at 500,000 or more new workers per year, as the native born workforce declines.
The CBO report implies that without immigration the 25-54 year old population (prime working years) will decline by about 300,000 a year. With immigration, this population increases by about 200,000 a year.