Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Sub-Saharan immigrants grew 26% since 2010

Sunday, May 20th, 2018

An estimated 1.55 million sub-Saharan African immigrants lived in the U.S in 2017, a 26% increase of about a 325,000 from 2010. Pew Research describes the typical sub-Saharan immigrant in the U.S. compared to Europe:

Sub-Saharan immigrants to the U.S. are more educated than those going to European countries. In the U.S., 69% of sub-Saharan immigrants ages 25 and older in 2015 said they had at least some college experience. In the same year, the share in the UK who reported some college experience was 49%, while it was lower still in France (30%), Portugal (27%) and Italy (10%). These immigrants in the U.S. are more likely to have some college education (69%) than the native American population (63%).

They are more likely to be working. In 2015, 92.9% of U.S.-based sub-Saharan immigrants said they had a paying job, compared with 84.9% in Portugal, 83.7% in France and 80.3% in Italy.

One seventh are undocumented. Pew Research Center estimated there were roughly 250,000unauthorized sub-Saharan immigrants living in the U.S. in 2015. This amounts to roughly one-in-seven sub-Saharan immigrants living in the country.

They have come as refugees, family members and diversity program green card holders. In the U.S., those fleeing conflict also make up a portion of the more than 400,000 sub-Saharan migrants who moved to the States between 2010 and 2016. According to data from U.S. Department of Homeland Security and U.S. State Department, 110,000 individuals or 28% from sub-Saharan countries were resettled as refugees over this seven-year period. An additional 190,000 or 43% were granted lawful permanent residence by virtue of family ties; nearly 110,000 or 25% more entered the U.S. through the diversity visa program. (From Pew, here.)

In operation since 1995, the visa lottery seeks to diversify the U.S. immigrant population by granting visas to underrepresented nations. Citizens of countries with the most legal immigrant arrivals in recent years – such as Mexico, Canada, China and India – are not eligible to apply. Legal immigrants entering the U.S. on a diversity visa account for about 5% of the roughly 1 million people who are awarded green cards each year. (from Pew, here.)

Trump: “I want a merit-based immigration system.”

Friday, May 18th, 2018

 

President Trump said on May 16 that he wants to put in a merit-based immigration system. The leading conservative Republican bill in the House is the Goodlatte bill, which does not include a merit point system. But a Senate bill submitted in early 2018 by Senator Cotton (RAISE Reforming American Immigration for Strong Employment Act) would introduce a point system (section 220). The RAISE Act point system is described here.

That point system, and one which President Trump likely has in mind, would essentially bar green cards for low formally educated immigrants. Some 27 million foreign-born people work in America, about 17% of the workforce. Among major occupations with no need (1) for a high school degree and (2) much contact with the public, immigrants fill about 40% of these jobs. They include jobs on farms, construction sites, warehouses, in kitchens, and for building cleaning and maintenance. Roughly half of the immigrant workers in these jobs are undocumented.

Immigration and the workforces of advanced economies

Wednesday, May 16th, 2018

The International Monetary Fund talks about the positive impact of immigration on workforces of developed countries:

Migration can relieve the strain of population aging and contribute to other long-term gains, such as higher growth and productivity. Net migration accounts for roughly half of the population growth in advanced economies over the past three decades….dramatic shifts in demographic structure projected in advanced economies could overwhelm the ability of policies to offset the forces of aging.

Aggregate participation will eventually decline and that the participation of older workers must rise significantly to stem the decline in aggregate participation. Unless technology delivers offsetting productivity gains, these findings highlight the need for many advanced economies to rethink immigration policies to boost their labor supply…Although receiving migrants can pose challenges, potentially prompting a political backlash, it can also be a boon for host countries.

The current bipartisan immigration bill

Saturday, May 12th, 2018

The current effort by some House of Representatives members to enact a bipartisan immigration bill draws upon a bill introduced on January 26. Reps. Will Hurd (R-Texas) and Pete Aguilar (D-California) filed the Uniting and Securing America Act (USA) Act, H.R. 4796, with 48 bipartisan original cosponsors. The bill will protect Dreamers, and make sensible improvements to border control and to immigration courts.

Dreamer protection

The bill would create a renewable eight-year conditional permanent resident status that would allow Dreamers to earn the ability to be protected from deportation, work legally in the U.S., travel outside the country and apply to be a lawful permanent resident if they meet certain requirements.

They could apply for permanent status through one of three tracks: at least two years of college (education track); served in the military (military track); or have been employed for periods totaling at least 3 years and at least 80 percent of the time that the individual has had valid employment authorization, except periods in which the individual was enrolled in school (worker track).

Border security

A number of measures, including Develop a Comprehensive Southern Border Strategy. The bill would direct the DHS Secretary to submit within 12 months a comprehensive, mile-by-mile border strategy containing a list of physical barriers, technologies and tools that can be used to secure the border and their projected per mile cost estimate.

Also, the bill would authorize $110 million for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2022 to increase collaboration between U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and state and local law enforcement entities to support border security operations.

Immigration courts

The bill would increase the number of immigration judges by 55 each year from fiscal years 2018 through 2020, along with necessary support staff, to reduce the immigration court backlogs, which currently stands at about 660,000 cases. The average wait time for a case to be heard is about 670 days. The bill would also increase the number of Board of Immigration Appeals staff attorneys by 23 each year from fiscal years 2018 through 2020, along with necessary support staff.

Downturn in foreign doctors wanting to come to U.S.

Thursday, May 10th, 2018

There are more than 247,000 doctors with medical degrees from foreign countries practicing in the United States, making up slightly more than one-quarter of all doctors. Most foreign-trained doctors are not U.S. citizens—meaning that the majority are foreign-born.

One channel of immigration is graduate medical study. Just over 7,000 international medical graduates applied to study in the United States for 2018, down 217 from last year and nearly 400 applicants from 2016.

in 2015, nearly 25% of residents across all medical fields were born outside of the United States. In subspecialist residency programs, foreign medical graduates accounted for more than a third of residents.

Foreign-trained doctors are more likely than their U.S.-trained counterparts to practice in lower-income and disadvantaged U.S. communities. In areas with the highest poverty rates—where more than 30% of the population lives below the federal poverty rate—nearly one-third of all doctors are foreign-trained. Where per-capita income is below $15,000 per year, 42.5% of all doctors are foreign-trained. Where 75% or more of the population is non-white, 36.2% of the doctors are foreign-trained.

Immigrants, global cuisine and restaurants

Tuesday, May 8th, 2018

43% of restaurant chefs are foreign-born. So are 25% restaurant managers, and 29% of businesses in the combined restaurant/hotel sector are immigrant-owned. (from here.)

66% of consumers eat a wider variety of ethnic cuisines now than five years ago. 80% of consumers eat at least one ethnic cuisine per month. 17% of consumers eat seven or more cuisines on a monthly basis. (from here.)

Younger consumers are more likely than older consumers to be frequent eaters; nearly half of consumers 18-44 eat at least four ethnic cuisines each month, compared to fewer than one in four of those 65 or older. Families with children are also more likely to eat a wider range of cuisines regularly. (From here.)

How long in US before deported?

Sunday, May 6th, 2018

 

Immigration court cases now involve more long-time residents, according to this report.

The latest available data from the Immigration Court reveals a sharp uptick in the proportion of immigration court cases involving immigrants who have been living in the U.S. for years. During March 2018, for example, court records show that only 10% of immigrants in new cases brought by the Department of Homeland Security had just arrived in this country while 43% had arrived two or more years ago, and 25% at least four years ago,

In contrast, the proportion of individuals who had just arrived in new filings during the last full month of the Obama Administration (December 2016) made up 72%, and only 6% had been here at least two years. During the period between May 2013 and February 2017 over 75% of all court cases involved those who had only recently arrived. During this period the Obama Administration had prioritized recent illegal entrants to the country. Faced with a growing court backlog and not enough judges to hear and decide new cases, DHS believed this focus would serve as a more effective deterrent. Concentrating limited resources in this manner naturally increased the odds that recent illegal entrants and over-stayers would be promptly deported.

The top 25% of cases in terms of length in the U.S. were about this long in the U.S. at a minimum:

2000 – 2003 about 6 years

2004 – 2005 about 3 years

2006 – 2012 8 years or higher

2013 – 2016 rapidly descended to and stayed at zero years.

TheMigration Policy Institute wrote, “the Obama-era policies represented the culmination of a gradual but consistent effort to narrow its enforcement focus to two key groups: The deportation of criminals and recent unauthorized border crossers. Eighty-five percent of all removals and returns during fiscal year (FY) 2016 were of noncitizens who had recently crossed the U.S. border unlawfully. Of the remainder, who were removed from the U.S. interior, more than 90 percent had been convicted of what DHS defines as serious crimes.”

2017 rapidly rose to 4 years.

Note that these figure are not for deportations but for being brought before an immigration court.

Public opinion on a wall with Mexico

Saturday, May 5th, 2018

According to a recent Quinnipiac poll, Republicans favor a wall 81% – 15% and Democrats do not want a wall 95% – 4%. Independents oppose 58% – 39%. All totaled, people were against a wall 57% – 40%. Support is growing.…from early 2017, support averaged about 35% until recently.

Quinnipiac poll is here.

Who speaks other than English at home?

Friday, May 4th, 2018

 

The 2013 American Community Survey (ACS) reported that the number of people who speak a language other than English at home was 62 million. That is 20% of all persons. In 2000, the share was 18%; in 1990, 14%; it was 11%.

Languages with more than a million speakers in 2013 were Spanish (38.4 million), Chinese (3), Tagalog (1.6), Vietnamese (1.4), French (1.3), and Korean and Arabic (1.1 each).

States with over 30% speaking other than English were California 45%; New Mexico, 36%; Texas 35%; New Jersey,30%; Nevada, 30%; and New York, 30%;

Linguistically “isolated” (No one age 14 and over speaks English only or speaks English “very well”) —

4.5% of all households; 24% of Spanish speaking households; 28% of Asian language speakers; about 16% of other language speakers.

 

Vibrancy of immigrant owned small businesses

Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018

In 2012, the Fiscal Policy Institute found that 18% of small business owners in the U.S. were immigrants, about even with the foreign-born share of the workforce (17%). Immigrants make up 43% of hotel and motel owners and 37% of restaurant owners. Immigrant small business owners are also over-represented in taxi service firms, dry cleaning and laundry services, gas stations, and grocery stores.

Immigrants started 28% of all new U.S. businesses in 2011. That is per size of population, double the rate of native-born businesses. Between 2000 and 2010, income generated by native-owned businesses increased 14% But income from immigrant-owned businesses increased by more than 60%.

Source here.