Archive for the ‘Demographics’ Category

Mirjana Kulenovic

Tuesday, May 22nd, 2018

Mirjana Kulenovic’s team at Jewish Vocational Services in Boston works with over 400 new refugees a year. With little or no English a refugee can get work within two months in hotel housekeeping, she told me. After her English improves, she could become a bank teller. After formal education, such as at Bunker Hill Community College, she then might move into the pharmacy industry or a higher level job in financial services. “There’s a definite labor shortage for healthcare jobs such as lab technicians,” she said.

She and husband are Croatian. They were living in Serbia and put on a list to be shot. Eventually we got into America on asylum visas.

Photo credit:  Earl Dotter, 2016.



Sub-Saharan immigrants grew 26% since 2010

Sunday, May 20th, 2018

An estimated 1.55 million sub-Saharan African immigrants lived in the U.S in 2017, a 26% increase of about a 325,000 from 2010. Pew Research describes the typical sub-Saharan immigrant in the U.S. compared to Europe:

Sub-Saharan immigrants to the U.S. are more educated than those going to European countries. In the U.S., 69% of sub-Saharan immigrants ages 25 and older in 2015 said they had at least some college experience. In the same year, the share in the UK who reported some college experience was 49%, while it was lower still in France (30%), Portugal (27%) and Italy (10%). These immigrants in the U.S. are more likely to have some college education (69%) than the native American population (63%).

They are more likely to be working. In 2015, 92.9% of U.S.-based sub-Saharan immigrants said they had a paying job, compared with 84.9% in Portugal, 83.7% in France and 80.3% in Italy.

One seventh are undocumented. Pew Research Center estimated there were roughly 250,000unauthorized sub-Saharan immigrants living in the U.S. in 2015. This amounts to roughly one-in-seven sub-Saharan immigrants living in the country.

They have come as refugees, family members and diversity program green card holders. In the U.S., those fleeing conflict also make up a portion of the more than 400,000 sub-Saharan migrants who moved to the States between 2010 and 2016. According to data from U.S. Department of Homeland Security and U.S. State Department, 110,000 individuals or 28% from sub-Saharan countries were resettled as refugees over this seven-year period. An additional 190,000 or 43% were granted lawful permanent residence by virtue of family ties; nearly 110,000 or 25% more entered the U.S. through the diversity visa program. (From Pew, here.)

In operation since 1995, the visa lottery seeks to diversify the U.S. immigrant population by granting visas to underrepresented nations. Citizens of countries with the most legal immigrant arrivals in recent years – such as Mexico, Canada, China and India – are not eligible to apply. Legal immigrants entering the U.S. on a diversity visa account for about 5% of the roughly 1 million people who are awarded green cards each year. (from Pew, here.)

Immigrants: no increase in crime

Monday, May 14th, 2018

A February, 2018 study of crimes in Texas, where immigration status is recorded for all crimes, failed to find any association between immigration status and crimes. Illegal immigrants make up about 6.4% of the state’s population in 2015 but only accounted for by 5.4% of all homicide convictions. Legal immigrants, 10.4% of the population, committed only 1.6% of homicide convictions. Native born Americans, 83% of the population, accounted for 93% of convictions. The same relative rates appear in sexual assaults and larceny.

Illegal immigrant crime rates were higher than for native Americans in four categories that in sum accounted for 0.18% of all convictions in 2015:  gambling, kidnapping, smuggling and vagrancy.

A July, 2017 study looked at DUI, drug overdose fatalities and drug arrests 1990 – 2014.  The researchers studied several federal databases relating to drug crimes, highway safety and other sources. They found no positive correlation between the greater number of foreign born persons and these drug and alcohol incidents.

A March, 2018 study found no positive correlation between immigrant growth and violent crime between 1990 – 2014.

These studies are summarized here.



Downturn in foreign doctors wanting to come to U.S.

Thursday, May 10th, 2018

There are more than 247,000 doctors with medical degrees from foreign countries practicing in the United States, making up slightly more than one-quarter of all doctors. Most foreign-trained doctors are not U.S. citizens—meaning that the majority are foreign-born.

One channel of immigration is graduate medical study. Just over 7,000 international medical graduates applied to study in the United States for 2018, down 217 from last year and nearly 400 applicants from 2016.

in 2015, nearly 25% of residents across all medical fields were born outside of the United States. In subspecialist residency programs, foreign medical graduates accounted for more than a third of residents.

Foreign-trained doctors are more likely than their U.S.-trained counterparts to practice in lower-income and disadvantaged U.S. communities. In areas with the highest poverty rates—where more than 30% of the population lives below the federal poverty rate—nearly one-third of all doctors are foreign-trained. Where per-capita income is below $15,000 per year, 42.5% of all doctors are foreign-trained. Where 75% or more of the population is non-white, 36.2% of the doctors are foreign-trained.

Who speaks other than English at home?

Friday, May 4th, 2018


The 2013 American Community Survey (ACS) reported that the number of people who speak a language other than English at home was 62 million. That is 20% of all persons. In 2000, the share was 18%; in 1990, 14%; it was 11%.

Languages with more than a million speakers in 2013 were Spanish (38.4 million), Chinese (3), Tagalog (1.6), Vietnamese (1.4), French (1.3), and Korean and Arabic (1.1 each).

States with over 30% speaking other than English were California 45%; New Mexico, 36%; Texas 35%; New Jersey,30%; Nevada, 30%; and New York, 30%;

Linguistically “isolated” (No one age 14 and over speaks English only or speaks English “very well”) —

4.5% of all households; 24% of Spanish speaking households; 28% of Asian language speakers; about 16% of other language speakers.


Vibrancy of immigrant owned small businesses

Wednesday, May 2nd, 2018

In 2012, the Fiscal Policy Institute found that 18% of small business owners in the U.S. were immigrants, about even with the foreign-born share of the workforce (17%). Immigrants make up 43% of hotel and motel owners and 37% of restaurant owners. Immigrant small business owners are also over-represented in taxi service firms, dry cleaning and laundry services, gas stations, and grocery stores.

Immigrants started 28% of all new U.S. businesses in 2011. That is per size of population, double the rate of native-born businesses. Between 2000 and 2010, income generated by native-owned businesses increased 14% But income from immigrant-owned businesses increased by more than 60%.

Source here.

Children of immigrants in science talent competitions

Monday, April 30th, 2018

Sixty percent (24 of 40) of the finalists of the 2004 Intel Science Talent Search had at least one immigrant parent. In 2011, that proportion rose to 70 percent (28 of 40) who had at least one immigrant parent. And in 2016, the number rose again to 83 percent (33 of 40) of the finalists of the Intel Science Talent Search who had at least one immigrant parent. (Go here.)


How the heart of Silicon Valley compares

Sunday, April 22nd, 2018

The City of Cupertino, California, epitomizes the demographic culture of the Silicon Valley economy. Here how this 59,000 population community compares to the rest of the U.S.

Percent Asian: 64% vs. 5%

Percent foreign-born: 50% vs. 13%

Median household income (2013: $130,000 vs $53,000.

With at least a bachelors degree: 75% vs 29%

Those working in managerial or professional job: 77% vs. 36%

Median house value (2013): over $1 million vs $176,000

Speaking other than English at home: 63% vs. 44% in California and 20% in U.S.

Population 18 to 64: 59% vs 60%

Percentage who moved in one year 15% vs. 11%

Percentage moved from abroad: 3% vs. 0.8% in California and 0.6% in U.S.

Unless otherwise noted, data is from here.

Every day perceptions when immigrants arrive in large numbers

Friday, April 20th, 2018

Author Tomas Jimenez conducted 179 interviews in the racially diverse of three Silicon Valley cities. One used to be largely African-American and now is largely Hispanic. The others have had big influxes of South and East Asian immigrants. The author studied the longtime “established” residents’ response to newcomers.

Over time, immigrant-driven diversity “becomes more kaleidoscopic as newcomers assimilate, leading established individuals to recognize diversity within racial groups and to define belonging in nonracial terms.”
There are two markers to closer interpersonal relations: speaking English well and lengthy residence in the neighborhood. Legal status of the immigrant population was also a key factor in the established residents’ perception of immigrants overall.

“There was a resounding chorus across the interview sample that the English language was the cultural nucleus of American identity. While no respondent believed that immigrants should shed their mother tongue, all described speaking English as the behavioral essence of Americanness. And yet they also had difficulty pointing to American cultural displays, aside from speaking English. As a White, male college student from Berryessa reported:

‘Our [American] culture is the absence of culture. They have a distinct culture and every other country has a very distinct culture except us, because we’re a blend of all the cultures…. It definitely helps if [immigrants] speak fluent English with as little accent as possible.’ “

Jiménez concludes: “But if the comments of those interviewed in Silicon Valley are any indication, they also feel a sense of appreciation for the new opportunities and vibrant cultural admixture that emerge from these changes. Over time, and across generations, these shifts will give way to a sense of normal that, in hindsight, will have changed dramatically.”

The source is here.


Snapshot of Dominicans in the United States

Wednesday, April 18th, 2018

The Dominican population in the U.S. was a bare 12,000 in 1960, then grew. It doubled during the 1980s and again in the 1990s. Since then it has grown about 25% decade and now stands at about one million, out of a total 44 million foreign persons. First, second and later generations who cite Dominican roots are about 2.2 million, or about a 2 to 1 ratio with foreign born Dominicans.

Half live in New York, and another 25% in New Jersey or Florida, but Boston is also a big attraction and Dominicans are the largest Hispanic group in the Boston area (larger than Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Hispanics). About 6 out of 10 have speak English less than well, compared to about half of all immigrants. About 35% of Dominican adults do not have a high school degree, compared to 29% of all immigrant adults, and 8% of native born Americans.

About one quarter live in poverty. About 112,100 are undocumented – that is, about 10% of all Dominicans and 1% of all undocumented persons. (That compares to about 5.6 million undocumented Mexicans out of about 12 million Mexicans in the U.S.)

Dominicans remit back about $6 billion, which is 8% of the country’s gross domestic product.

This from the Migration Policy Institute.